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Genomic comparison of diverse Salmonella serovars isolated from swine.

  • Author(s): Gupta, Sushim K
  • Sharma, Poonam
  • McMillan, Elizabeth A
  • Jackson, Charlene R
  • Hiott, Lari M
  • Woodley, Tiffanie
  • Humayoun, Shaheen B
  • Barrett, John B
  • Frye, Jonathan G
  • McClelland, Michael
  • et al.
Abstract

Food animals act as a reservoir for many foodborne pathogens. Salmonella enterica is one of the leading pathogens that cause food borne illness in a broad host range including animals and humans. They can also be associated with a single host species or a subset of hosts, due to genetic factors associated with colonization and infection. Adult swine are often asymptomatic carriers of a broad range of Salmonella servoars and can act as an important reservoir of infections for humans. In order to understand the genetic variations among different Salmonella serovars, Whole Genome Sequences (WGS) of fourteen Salmonella serovars from swine products were analyzed. More than 75% of the genes were part of the core genome in each isolate and the higher fraction of gene assign to different functional categories in dispensable genes indicated that these genes acquired for better adaptability and diversity. High concordance (97%) was detected between phenotypically confirmed antibiotic resistances and identified antibiotic resistance genes from WGS. The resistance determinants were mainly located on mobile genetic elements (MGE) on plasmids or integrated into the chromosome. Most of known and putative virulence genes were part of the core genome, but a small fraction were detected on MGE. Predicted integrated phage were highly diverse and many harbored virulence, metal resistance, or antibiotic resistance genes. CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) patterns revealed the common ancestry or infection history among Salmonella serovars. Overall genomic analysis revealed a great deal of diversity among Salmonella serovars due to acquired genes that enable them to thrive and survive during infection.

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