Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Single site-specific integration targeting coupled with embryonic stem cell differentiation provides a highthroughput alternative to in vivo enhancer analyses

  • Author(s): Wilkinson, AC
  • Goode, DK
  • Cheng, YH
  • Dickel, DE
  • Foster, S
  • Sendall, T
  • Tijssen, MR
  • Sanchez, MJ
  • Pennacchio, LA
  • Kirkpatrick, AM
  • Göttgens, B
  • et al.

Comprehensive analysis of cis-regulatory elements is key to understanding the dynamic gene regulatory networks that control embryonic development. While transgenic animals represent the gold standard assay, their generation is costly, entails significant animal usage, and in utero development complicates time-course studies. As an alternative, embryonic stem (ES) cells can readily be differentiated in a process that correlates well with developing embryos. Here, we describe a highly effective platform for enhancer assays using an Hsp68/ Venus reporter cassette that targets to the Hprt locus in mouse ES cells. This platform combines the flexibility of GatewayH cloning, live cell trackability of a fluorescent reporter, low background and the advantages of single copy insertion into a defined genomic locus. We demonstrate the successful recapitulation of tissue-specific enhancer activity for two cardiac and two haematopoietic enhancers. In addition, we used this assay to dissect the functionality of the highly conserved Ets/Ets/Gata motif in the Scl+19 enhancer, which revealed that the Gata motif is not required for initiation of enhancer activity. We further confirmed that Gata2 is not required for endothelial activity of the Scl+19 enhancer using Gata22/2 Scl+19 transgenic embryos. We have therefore established a valuable toolbox to study gene regulatory networks with broad applicability. 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.

Main Content
Current View