Quantum Feedback and Traveling-wave Parametric Amplification in Superconducting Circuits
Feedback control in classical systems is an indispensable, ubiquitous tool. The theoretical basis for achieving optimal classical control is well understood, and crucially relies on a very classical assumption: that measurements of the state of a system under control need not perturb that state. In a quantum context this assumption is fundamentally invalid. Although many aspects of the theory of quantum feedback control are relatively well developed, the technological basis for feedback control of a single quantum system has only very recently matured. We demonstrate the experimental realization of a quantum feedback control protocol, perpetually stabilizing the coherent Rabi oscillations of a superconducting qubit. This is the first utilization of quantum feedback control for stabilizing a dynamical process, and the first application of quantum feedback in a solid-state system of any kind. This demonstration comprises the first half of this thesis. The feedback protocol is predicated on the ability to make high-fidelity quantum measurements, which are enabled by quantum-limited Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPAs). The design and realization of the novel Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA) comprises the second half of this thesis. The JTWPA achieves order-of-magnitude improvements over state of the art JPAs in bandwidth and signal power handling while providing quantum-limited noise performance, potentially enabling the simultaneous readout of dozens of superconducting qubits and the generation of broadband multi-mode squeezing in the microwave domain.