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Regulation of reactivated contraction in teleost retinal cone models by calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate.


We have been using lysed cell models of teleost retinal cones to examine the mechanism of contraction in nonmuscle cells. We have previously reported that dark-adapted retinas can be lysed with the detergent Brij-58 to obtain cone motile models that undergo Ca++- and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent reactivated contraction. In this report we further dissect the roles of ATP and Ca++ in activation of contraction and force production by (a) characterizing the Ca++ and nucleotide requirements in more detail, (b) by analyzing the effects of inosine triphosphate (ITP) and the ATP analog ATP gamma S and (c) by testing effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on reactivated cone contraction. Exposing lysed cone models to differing free Ca++ concentrations produced reactivated contraction at rates proportional to the free Ca++ concentration between 3.16 X 10(-8) and 10(-6) M. A role for calmodulin (CaM) in this Ca++ regulation was suggested by the inhibition of reactivated contraction by the calmodulin inhibitors trifluoperazine and calmidazolium ( R24571 ). The results of analysis of nucleotide requirements in lysed cone models were consistent with those of smooth muscle studies suggesting a role for myosin phosphorylation in Ca++ regulation of contraction. ATP gamma S and ITP are particularly interesting in that ATP gamma S, on the one hand, can be used by kinases to phosphorylate proteins (e.g., myosin light chains) but resists cleavage by phosphatases or adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), e.g., myosin ATPase. ITP, on the other hand, can be used by myosin ATPase but does not support Ca++/calmodulin mediated phosphorylation of myosin light chains by myosin light chain kinase. Thus, these nucleotides provide an opportunity to distinguish between the kinase and myosin ATPase requirements for ATP. When individual nucleotides were tested with cone motile models, the nucleotide requirement was highly specific for ATP; not only ITP and ATP gamma S, but also guanosine triphosphate, cytosine triphosphate, adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMPPNP) failed to support reactivated contraction when substituted for ATP throughout the incubation. However, if lysed cones were initially incubated with ATP gamma S and then subsequently incubated with ITP, the cones contracted to an extent that was comparable to that observed with ATP. As observed in skinned smooth muscle, adding cAMP to contraction medium strongly inhibited contraction in lysed cone models.

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