Demonstrating a Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Energy Storage Strategies to Meet California Sustainability Goals
- Author(s): Forrest, Kate Elizabeth
- Advisor(s): Samuelsen, G. S.
- et al.
Under global climate change, arid regions, like California, face higher temperatures and more extended droughts. In response, California is implementing policies for reducing GHG emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, such as renewable and zero emission vehicle (ZEV) targets. Electricity and transportation have historically been treated as independent. However, emission strategies applied to either can affect both, as well as water resources, either aiding or hindering the advancement of mutual sustainability goals.
Expanding renewable utilization is increasing the need for stationary energy storage (SES) to manage renewable dynamics and shift energy to resolve the misalignment of supply and demand. The deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to meet ZEV targets introduces a new variable load and, at the same time, an alternative grid resource that, with intelligent charging, can be utilized as to manage grid dynamics, thereby achieving high renewable integration and reducing both electricity and transportation emissions.
This research employs an integrated platform to evaluate SES and PEV strategies to meet sustainability goals. The role of SES to facilitate renewable integration and meet emission targets under different scenarios is investigated. This is accomplished by (1) evaluating the effectiveness of SES to reduce emissions at high renewables, and (2) examining the impact of intelligent PEV deployment on SES requirements to reach renewable targets. The impact of water-intensive renewable technologies is also discussed. It is determined that intelligent PEV deployment provides an opportunity to further electricity and transportation emission targets by improving renewable integration and providing zero-emission energy for vehicles.