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NAD+ consumption by PARP1 in response to DNA damage triggers metabolic shift critical for damaged cell survival


DNA damage signaling is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity and cell fate decision. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a DNA damage sensor rapidly activated in a damage dose- and complexity-dependent manner playing a critical role in the initial chromatin organization and DNA repair pathway choice at damage sites. However, our understanding of a cell-wide consequence of its activation in damaged cells is still limited. Using the phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence-based biosensors in combination with laser microirradiation, we found a rapid cell-wide increase of the bound NADH fraction in response to nuclear DNA damage, which is triggered by PARP-dependent NAD+ depletion. This change is linked to the metabolic balance shift to oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) over glycolysis. Inhibition of oxphos, but not glycolysis, resulted in parthanatos due to rapid PARP-dependent ATP deprivation, indicating that oxphos becomes critical for damaged cell survival. The results reveal the novel prosurvival response to PARP activation through a change in cellular metabolism and demonstrate how unique applications of advanced fluorescence imaging and laser microirradiation-induced DNA damage can be a powerful tool to interrogate damage-induced metabolic changes at high spatiotemporal resolution in a live cell.

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