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The interaction of phospholipase A2 with phospholipid analogues and inhibitors.

  • Author(s): Yu, L
  • Deems, RA
  • Hajdu, J
  • Dennis, EA
  • et al.
Abstract

A series of structurally modified phospholipids have been used to delineate the structural features involved in the interaction between cobra venom (Naja naja naja) phospholipase A2 and its substrate. Special emphasis has been placed on sn-2 amide analogues of the phospholipids. These studies have led to a very potent, reversible phospholipase A2 inhibitor. A six-step synthesis of this compound, 1-palmitylthio-2-palmitoylamino-1,2-dideoxy-sn-glycero-3- phosphorylethanolamine (thioether amide-PE), was developed. Other analogues studied included 1-palmitylthio-2-palmitoylamino-1,2-dideox-sn- glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, 1-palmityl-2-palmitoylamino-2- deoxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-palmitoylamino-2-deoxy-sn-glycero-3- phosphorylcholine, 1-palmitylthio- 2([(tetradecyloxy)carbonyl]amino)-1,2-dideoxy-sn-glycero-3- phosphorylcholine, 1-palmitoyl- 2([(octadecylylamino)carbonyl]amino)-2-deoxy-sn-glycero-3- phosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin. Inhibition studies used the well defined Triton X-100 mixed micelle system and the spectroscopic thio assay. The phospholipid analogues showed varying degrees of inhibition. The best inhibitor was the thioether amide-PE which had an IC50 of 0.45 microM. In contrast, sphingomyelin, a natural phospholipid that resembles the amide analogues, did not inhibit but rather activated phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. This systematic study of phospholipase A2 inhibition led to the following conclusions about phospholipid-phospholipase A2 interactions: (i) sn-2 amide analogues bind tighter than natural phospholipids, presumably because the amide forms a hydrogen bond with the water molecule in the enzyme active site, stabilizing its binding. (ii) Inhibitor analogues containing the ethanolamine polar head group appear to be more potent inhibitors than those containing the choline group. This difference in potency may be due solely to the fact that the cobra venom phospholipase A2 is activated by choline-containing phospholipids. Thus, choline-containing non-hydrolyzable analogues both inhibit and activate this enzyme. Both of these effects must be taken into account when studying phosphatidylcholine inhibitors of the cobra venom enzyme. (iii) The potency of inhibition of these analogues is significantly enhanced by increasing the hydrophobicity of the sn-1 functional group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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