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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Controlling vertebrate animal damage in southern pines

  • Author(s): Jackson, Jeffrey J.
  • et al.

Certain mammals and birds may damage or destroy southern pines, causing economic losses in intensively cultured areas such as seed orchards and nurseries. Mammal pests may eat seeds; tunnel, dislodging seedlings, or chew on roots; or girdle, debark, or sever stems or branches. Bird pests may eat seeds or excavate holes in the tree trunks. The first important step is to identify the pest(s) from the damage left behind. Thereafter, various control options−from using traps and repellents to altering habitat−are available.

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