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The Measurement of Everyday Cognition (ECog): Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

Abstract

This article describes the development and validation of an instrument to assess cognitively mediated functional abilities in older adults, Everyday Cognition (ECog). The ECog is an informant-rated questionnaire comprised of multiple subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine its factor structure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing it to established measures of everyday function. External validity was evaluated by comparing ECog results across different clinical groups (cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia). CFA supported a seven-factor model including one global factor and six domain-specific factors (Everyday Memory, Language, Visuospatial Abilities, Planning, Organization, and Divided Attention). The ECog correlated with established measures of functional status and global cognition, but only weakly with age and education. The clinical groups performed differently in each domain. In addition to the global factor, the Everyday Memory factor independently differentiated MCI from Normal, while the Everyday Language domain differentiated Dementia from MCI. Different subtypes of MCI also showed different patterns. Results suggest the ECog shows promise as a useful tool for the measurement of general and domain-specific everyday functions in the elderly.

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