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The Postprandial Effects of a Moderately High-Fat Meal on Lipid Profiles and Vascular Inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Pilot Study.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease of aging with unknown causative factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation and neurovascular dysfunction play important roles in AD. The postprandial period following a moderately high-fat meal is associated with vascular inflammation in young, healthy individuals; however, this relationship has not been investigated in Alzheimer's patients despite their exaggerated inflammatory state. Patients with AD and age-matched control subjects were recruited through the UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center. All subjects consumed a moderately high-fat breakfast meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected for lipid, lipoprotein, and oxylipin analyses, as well as assays for cytokine levels and monocyte activation. The plasma lipid analyses revealed similar levels of triglycerides and esterified oxylipins between groups, but there was an interaction between postprandial non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and body mass index in the AD group compared to the control subjects. The AD group also had increased behenic acid and decreased linoleic and oleic acids in the postprandial period; however, these were not significantly different. Inflammatory assays revealed elevated fasting levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 p70, but no change in monocyte activation in the AD group. The postprandial period following a moderately high-fat meal is not associated with an exaggerated inflammatory state in Alzheimer's patients, and basal esterified oxylipin profiles do not indicate elevated oxidative stress. However, the baseline inflammatory state during fasting in AD patients includes elevated levels of plasma IL-10 and IL-12 p70, which may indicate a balance between immune responses mediated by these interleukins.

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