Teprotumumab: Interpreting the Clinical Trials in the Context of Thyroid Eye Disease Pathogenesis and Current Therapies.
Published Web Locationhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161642021003183?via%3Dihub
Teprotumumab, a monoclonal antibody targeted against the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED). Phase 1 studies of teprotumumab for the treatment of malignancies demonstrated an acceptable safety profile but limited effectiveness. Basic research implicating the IGF-1 receptor on the CD-34+ orbital fibrocyte in the pathogenesis of TED renewed interest in the drug. Two multicenter, randomized, double-masked, clinical trials (phase 2 and 3) evaluated the efficacy of 8 infusions of teprotumumab every 3 weeks versus placebo in 170 patients with recent-onset active TED, as defined by a clinical activity score (CAS) of at least 4. Teprotumumab was superior to placebo for the primary efficacy end points in both studies: overall responder rate as defined by a reduction of 2 or more CAS points and a reduction of 2 mm or more in proptosis (69% vs. 20%; P < 0.001; phase 2 study) and proptosis responder rate as defined by a reduction of 2 mm or more in proptosis (83% vs. 10%; P < 0.001; phase 3 study). In both studies, treatment with teprotumumab compared with placebo achieved a significant mean reduction of proptosis (-3.0 mm vs. -0.3 mm, phase 2 study; -3.32 mm vs. -0.53 mm, phase 3 study) and CAS (-4.0 vs. -2.5, phase 2 study; -3.7 vs. -2.0, phase 3 study). Teprotumumab also resulted in a greater proportion of patients with a final CAS of 0 or 1, higher diplopia responder rate, and a larger improvement in the Graves' Ophthalmopathy Quality of Life overall score. More than half of patients (62%, phase 2 trial; 56%, phase 3 trial) who were primary end point responders maintained this response at 51 weeks after the last dose of therapy. The most common adverse events reported with teprotumumab included muscle spasms (25%), nausea (17%), alopecia (13%), diarrhea (13%), fatigue (10%), hearing impairment (10%), and hyperglycemia (8%). Teprotumumab is contraindicated for those with inflammatory bowel disease and who are pregnant. Although the current dosing regimen has proven effective for TED, dose-ranging studies including variable concentrations, infusion frequencies, and durations of teprotumumab therapy in the setting of TED have not been performed.
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