Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Teprotumumab: Interpreting the Clinical Trials in the Context of Thyroid Eye Disease Pathogenesis and Current Therapies.

Published Web Location
No data is associated with this publication.

Teprotumumab, a monoclonal antibody targeted against the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED). Phase 1 studies of teprotumumab for the treatment of malignancies demonstrated an acceptable safety profile but limited effectiveness. Basic research implicating the IGF-1 receptor on the CD-34+ orbital fibrocyte in the pathogenesis of TED renewed interest in the drug. Two multicenter, randomized, double-masked, clinical trials (phase 2 and 3) evaluated the efficacy of 8 infusions of teprotumumab every 3 weeks versus placebo in 170 patients with recent-onset active TED, as defined by a clinical activity score (CAS) of at least 4. Teprotumumab was superior to placebo for the primary efficacy end points in both studies: overall responder rate as defined by a reduction of 2 or more CAS points and a reduction of 2 mm or more in proptosis (69% vs. 20%; P < 0.001; phase 2 study) and proptosis responder rate as defined by a reduction of 2 mm or more in proptosis (83% vs. 10%; P < 0.001; phase 3 study). In both studies, treatment with teprotumumab compared with placebo achieved a significant mean reduction of proptosis (-3.0 mm vs. -0.3 mm, phase 2 study; -3.32 mm vs. -0.53 mm, phase 3 study) and CAS (-4.0 vs. -2.5, phase 2 study; -3.7 vs. -2.0, phase 3 study). Teprotumumab also resulted in a greater proportion of patients with a final CAS of 0 or 1, higher diplopia responder rate, and a larger improvement in the Graves' Ophthalmopathy Quality of Life overall score. More than half of patients (62%, phase 2 trial; 56%, phase 3 trial) who were primary end point responders maintained this response at 51 weeks after the last dose of therapy. The most common adverse events reported with teprotumumab included muscle spasms (25%), nausea (17%), alopecia (13%), diarrhea (13%), fatigue (10%), hearing impairment (10%), and hyperglycemia (8%). Teprotumumab is contraindicated for those with inflammatory bowel disease and who are pregnant. Although the current dosing regimen has proven effective for TED, dose-ranging studies including variable concentrations, infusion frequencies, and durations of teprotumumab therapy in the setting of TED have not been performed.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Item not freely available? Link broken?
Report a problem accessing this item