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Dexamethasone, prostaglandin A, and retinoic acid modulation of murine and human melanoma cells grown in soft agar.


The cloning efficiencies of a murine melanoma cell line (S91 CCL 53.1) and a human melanoma cell strain (C8146c) were inhibited by dexamethasone (DEX), prostaglandin A1 (PGA1), and beta-all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) in a dose-dependent manner. Murine melanoma tumor colony-forming units (MTCFU) were inhibited more than 99% by DEX (1 X 10(-7) M) and RA (1 X 10(-7) M) with a concentration needed to produce a 50% reduction in colony formation for both hormones of 5 X 10(-9) M. Combinations of DEX and RA effected a synergistic inhibition on colony formation, which was reflected by a 11/2 log reduction in the hormone concentration needed to produce a greater than 99% inhibition of colony formation. When PGA1 was added to DEX and RA, a greater than additive reduction in colony formation was observed. Human MTCFU from cell strain C8146c were inhibited more than 85% at an RA concentration of 1 X 10(-7) M, but they were reduced only to 40% of control at a DEX concentration of 1 X 10(-6) M. DEX-RA produced an additive inhibition of colony formation. Addition of submaximal amounts of PGA1 to DEX-RA combinations or to either hormone alone resulted in synergistic reduction of human MTCFU. These results demonstrated that the proliferative potential of human and murine melanomas can be simultaneously regulated by DEX, PGA1, and RA.

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