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Formation and transport of oxidized reactive nitrogen, ozone, and secondary organic aerosol in Tokyo


Measurements of the major reactive nitrogen species (NOy)i (NOx, peroxyacyl nitrates, HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3-), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), volatile organic compounds, OH and HO2, and organic aerosol were made near the urban center of Tokyo in different seasons of 2003-2004 to study the processes involving oxidized forms of reactive nitrogen and O3. Generally, NOx constituted the dominant fraction of NOy throughout the seasons. The NOx/NOy and HNO3/NOy ratios were lowest and highest, respectively, in summer, owing to the seasonally high OH concentration. The fraction of NOy that remained in the atmosphere after emission (RNOy) decreased with the decrease in the NOx/NOy ratio in summer and fall. It is likely that the median seasonal-diurnal variations Of Ox = O3 + NO2 were controlled by those of the background O3 levels, photochemical O3 formation, and vertical transport. Ox showed large increases during midday under stagnant conditions in mid-August 2004. Their in situ production rates calculated by a box model were too slow to explain the observed increases. The high Ox was likely due to the accumulation of Ox from previous days in the upper part of the boundary layer (BL) followed by transport down to near the surface by mixing after sunrise. Considering the tight correlation between Ox and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), it is likely that SOA also accumulated during the course of sea-land breeze circulation in the BL. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

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