Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Diego

UC San Diego Previously Published Works bannerUC San Diego

A novel patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model of highly-aggressive liver metastasis for identification of candidate effective drug-combinations.


Liver metastasis is a recalcitrant disease that usually leads to death of the patient. The present study established a unique patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model of a highly aggressive liver metastasis of colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate proof-of-concept that candidate drug combinations could significantly inhibit growth and re-metastasis of this recalcitrant tumor. The patient's liver metastasis was initially established subcutaneously in nude mice and the subcutaneous tumor tissue was then orthotopically implanted in the liver of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Two studies were performed to test different drugs or drug combination, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + irinotecan (IRI) + bevacizumab (BEV) and regorafenib (REG) + selumetinib (SEL) had significantly inhibited liver metastasis growth (p = 0.013 and p = 0.035, respectively), and prevented liver satellite metastasis. This study is proof of concept that a PDOX model of highly aggressive colon-cancer metastasis can identify effective drug combinations and that the model has future clinical potential.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View