Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Investigating Intestinal Transporter Involvement in Rivaroxaban Disposition through Examination of Changes in Absorption.

Published Web Location
No data is associated with this publication.


The involvement of the intestinally expressed xenobiotic transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) have been implicated in rivaroxaban disposition based on in vitro studies, similar to what had previously been proposed for apixaban. We recently showed that these efflux transporters were not clinically relevant for apixaban disposition and examine here their relevance for this second Factor Xa inhibitor.


Using recently published methodologies to discern metabolic- from transporter- mediated drug interactions, a critical evaluation was undertaken of 9 rivaroxaban studies reporting 12 DDIs, one study of food effects and one study of hepatic function.


Rationale examination of these clinical studies using basic pharmacokinetic theory finds little support for the clinical significance of intestinal efflux transporters in rivaroxaban disposition. Drug-drug interactions are most likely adequately predicted based on the level of CYP 3A metabolism.


These analyses indicate that inhibition of efflux transporters appears to have negligible, clinically insignificant effects on the rivaroxaban absorption process, which is consistent with the concern that predictions based on in vitro measures may not translate to a clinically relevant interaction in vivo. We emphasize the need to evaluate gastric emptying, dissolution and other processes related to absorption when using MAT changes to indicate efflux transporter inhibition.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Item not freely available? Link broken?
Report a problem accessing this item