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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Use Associated with Reduced Mortality and Other Disease Outcomes in US Veterans with COVID-19



To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans.

Patients and methods

We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date.


The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46).


In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.

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