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Reduced DMPC and PMPC in lung surfactant promote SARS-CoV-2 infection in obesity.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2022.155181
ObjectiveObesity is an established risk factor for higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring hospitalization, and worse outcomes. However, the underlying mechanisms for the increased risk are not well understood. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus with the primary route of entry through the lungs, where the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor on pneumocytes. Lung surfactant produced by type II pneumocytes plays a major role in respiratory defense against infections. Surfactant predominantly contains lipids, especially phosphatidylcholines (PC), and obesity is characterized by aberrant lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that altered lipid composition in lung surfactant in obesity may promote SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to severe COVID-19 disease.
MethodsLipidomic analysis of lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed using LC-MS/MS. The effects of PCs on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection were studied in HEK293T cells with ACE2 overexpression and in Vero-E6 cells with endogenous ACE2 expression. For the cell-cell fusion assay, HEK293T-ACE2 and HEK293T expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike/eGFP were used as the target and effector cells, respectively.
ResultsLipidomic analysis revealed that myristic acid-containing dimyristoyl-PC (DMPC) and palmitoylmyristoyl-PC (PMPC) were reduced in lung tissue and BALF from high fat diet-induced obese mice. DMPC and PMPC markedly inhibited wild type and D614G mutant SARS-CoV-2 infection in HEK293T-ACE2 and Vero-E6 cells. Feeding obese mice with trimyristin, the triglycerides of myristic acid, increased DMPC and PMPC levels in lung surfactant. Lipid extract from BALF of trimyristin-treated obese mice mitigated the elevated wild type and D614G mutant SARS-CoV-2 infection. The inhibitory effects of DMPC and PMPC on SARS-CoV-2 infection were reversed by cholesterol.
ConclusionsThe reduced DMPC and PMPC in lung surfactant may promote SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increasing DMPC and PMPC in lung surfactant could be an innovative strategy for preventing and treating severe COVID-19 disease in obesity.
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