Genome‐Wide Annotation and Quantitation of Translation by Ribosome Profiling
Published Web Locationhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775365/
Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. A protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing is presented here. This ribosome-profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes is described. The protocol described requires 5 to 7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Sequencing and data analysis requires an additional 4 to 5 days.