An Efficient and Robust Deep Learning Method with 1-D Octave Convolution to Extract Fetal Electrocardiogram.
- Author(s): Vo, Khuong
- Le, Tai
- Rahmani, Amir M
- Dutt, Nikil
- Cao, Hung
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.3390/s20133757
The invasive method of fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) monitoring is widely used with electrodes directly attached to the fetal scalp. There are potential risks such as infection and, thus, it is usually carried out during labor in rare cases. Recent advances in electronics and technologies have enabled fECG monitoring from the early stages of pregnancy through fECG extraction from the combined fetal/maternal ECG (f/mECG) signal recorded non-invasively in the abdominal area of the mother. However, cumbersome algorithms that require the reference maternal ECG as well as heavy feature crafting makes out-of-clinics fECG monitoring in daily life not yet feasible. To address these challenges, we proposed a pure end-to-end deep learning model to detect fetal QRS complexes (i.e., the main spikes observed on a fetal ECG waveform). Additionally, the model has the residual network (ResNet) architecture that adopts the novel 1-D octave convolution (OctConv) for learning multiple temporal frequency features, which in turn reduce memory and computational cost. Importantly, the model is capable of highlighting the contribution of regions that are more prominent for the detection. To evaluate our approach, data from the PhysioNet 2013 Challenge with labeled QRS complex annotations were used in the original form, and the data were then modified with Gaussian and motion noise, mimicking real-world scenarios. The model can achieve a F1 score of 91.1% while being able to save more than 50% computing cost with less than 2% performance degradation, demonstrating the effectiveness of our method.