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Individual differences in compliance and agreement for sleep logs and wrist actigraphy: A longitudinal study of naturalistic sleep in healthy adults.

  • Author(s): Thurman, Steven M;
  • Wasylyshyn, Nick;
  • Roy, Heather;
  • Lieberman, Gregory;
  • Garcia, Javier O;
  • Asturias, Alex;
  • Okafor, Gold N;
  • Elliott, James C;
  • Giesbrecht, Barry;
  • Grafton, Scott T;
  • Mednick, Sara C;
  • Vettel, Jean M
  • et al.

There is extensive laboratory research studying the effects of acute sleep deprivation on biological and cognitive functions, yet much less is known about naturalistic patterns of sleep loss and the potential impact on daily or weekly functioning of an individual. Longitudinal studies are needed to advance our understanding of relationships between naturalistic sleep and fluctuations in human health and performance, but it is first necessary to understand the efficacy of current tools for long-term sleep monitoring. The present study used wrist actigraphy and sleep log diaries to obtain daily measurements of sleep from 30 healthy adults for up to 16 consecutive weeks. We used non-parametric Bland-Altman analysis and correlation coefficients to calculate agreement between subjectively and objectively measured variables including sleep onset time, sleep offset time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, the amount of wake time after sleep onset, and total sleep time. We also examined compliance data on the submission of daily sleep logs according to the experimental protocol. Overall, we found strong agreement for sleep onset and sleep offset times, but relatively poor agreement for variables related to wakefulness including sleep onset latency, awakenings, and wake after sleep onset. Compliance tended to decrease significantly over time according to a linear function, but there were substantial individual differences in overall compliance rates. There were also individual differences in agreement that could be explained, in part, by differences in compliance. Individuals who were consistently more compliant over time also tended to show the best agreement and lower scores on behavioral avoidance scale (BIS). Our results provide evidence for convergent validity in measuring sleep onset and sleep offset with wrist actigraphy and sleep logs, and we conclude by proposing an analysis method to mitigate the impact of non-compliance and measurement errors when the two methods provide discrepant estimates.

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