Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Diego

UC San Diego Previously Published Works bannerUC San Diego

The Growing and Glowing Toolbox of Fluorescent and Photoactive Proteins.

  • Author(s): Rodriguez, Erik A
  • Campbell, Robert E
  • Lin, John Y
  • Lin, Michael Z
  • Miyawaki, Atsushi
  • Palmer, Amy E
  • Shu, Xiaokun
  • Zhang, Jin
  • Tsien, Roger Y
  • et al.
Abstract

Over the past 20 years, protein engineering has been extensively used to improve and modify the fundamental properties of fluorescent proteins (FPs) with the goal of adapting them for a fantastic range of applications. FPs have been modified by a combination of rational design, structure-based mutagenesis, and countless cycles of directed evolution (gene diversification followed by selection of clones with desired properties) that have collectively pushed the properties to photophysical and biochemical extremes. In this review, we provide both a summary of the progress that has been made during the past two decades, and a broad overview of the current state of FP development and applications in mammalian systems.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View