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PROHIBITIN3 Forms Complexes with ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 to Regulate Stress-Induced Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  • Author(s): Seguel, Aldo;
  • Jelenska, Joanna;
  • Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel;
  • Marr, Sharon K;
  • Joyce, Michael B;
  • Gagesch, Kelsey R;
  • Shakoor, Nadia;
  • Jiang, Shang-Chuan;
  • Fonseca, Alejandro;
  • Wildermuth, Mary C;
  • Greenberg, Jean T;
  • Holuigue, Loreto
  • et al.
Abstract

Salicylic acid (SA) is a major defense signal in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the chloroplast-localized isochorismate pathway is the main source of SA biosynthesis during abiotic stress or pathogen infections. In the first step of the pathway, the enzyme ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) converts chorismate to isochorismate. An unknown enzyme subsequently converts isochorismate to SA. Here, we show that ICS1 protein levels increase during UV-C stress. To identify proteins that may play roles in SA production by regulating ICS1, we analyzed proteins that coimmunoprecipitated with ICS1 via mass spectrometry. The ICS1 complexes contained a large number of peptides from the PROHIBITIN (PHB) protein family, with PHB3 the most abundant. PHB proteins have diverse biological functions that include acting as scaffolds for protein complex formation and stabilization. PHB3 was reported previously to localize to mitochondria. Using fractionation, protease protection, and live imaging, we show that PHB3 also localizes to chloroplasts, where ICS1 resides. Notably, loss of PHB3 function led to decreased ICS1 protein levels in response to UV-C stress. However, ICS1 transcript levels remain unchanged, indicating that ICS1 is regulated posttranscriptionally. The phb3 mutant displayed reduced levels of SA, the SA-regulated protein PR1, and hypersensitive cell death in response to UV-C and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae and, correspondingly, supported increased growth of P. syringae The expression of a PHB3 transgene in the phb3 mutant complemented all of these phenotypes. We suggest a model in which the formation of PHB3-ICS1 complexes stabilizes ICS1 to promote SA production in response to stress.

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