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Incretin mimetics and DPP-IV inhibitors: new paradigms for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  • Author(s): Hinnen, Deborah;
  • Nielsen, Loretta L;
  • Waninger, Amy;
  • Kushner, Pamela
  • et al.

Incretin mimetics are a new class of pharmacological agents with multiple antihyperglycemic actions that mimic several of the actions of incretin hormones originating in the gut, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors suppress the degradation of many peptides, including GLP-1, thereby extending their bioactivity. These agents seem to have multiple mechanisms of action for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including some or all the following: enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppression of inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying, and decreased food intake. Exenatide (BYETTA) is the first incretin mimetic approved for clinical use by the US Food and Drug Administration. In phase 3 clinical trials, exenatide reduced HbA(1c) by approximately 1% and body weight by approximately 2 kg in T2DM patients failing to achieve glycemic control with metformin and/or a sulfonylurea, with mild-to-moderate nausea the most common side effect. Several GLP-1 analogues and DPP-IV inhibitors are in late-stage clinical testing and may soon become available for treating T2DM patients. The use of these agents may provide an opportunity to bring about new improvements in diabetes care.

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