Effects of methadone on the minimum anesthetic concentration of isoflurane, and its effects on heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation during isoflurane anesthesia in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)
- Author(s): Escobar, A
- Rocha, RW
- Pypendop, BH
- Filho, DZ
- Sousa, SS
- Valadão, CAA
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152546
© 2016 Escobar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg-1, IM) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg-1IM was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg-1of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg-1of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15,30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg-1) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg-1IM significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure.
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