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Aerosol properties, in-canopy gradients, turbulent fluxes and VOC concentrations at a pristine forest site in Amazonia

  • Author(s): Rizzo, LV
  • Artaxo, P
  • Karl, T
  • Guenther, AB
  • Greenberg, J
  • et al.
Abstract

Aerosol physical and chemical properties were measured in a forest site in central Amazonia (Cuieiras reservation, 2.61S; 60.21W) during the dry season of 2004 (Aug-Oct). Aerosol light scattering and absorption, mass concentration, elemental composition and size distributions were measured at three tower levels (Ground: 2 m; Canopy: 28 m, and Top: 40 m). For the first time, simultaneous eddy covariance fluxes of fine mode particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured above the Amazonian forest canopy. Aerosol fluxes were measured by eddy covariance using a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and a sonic anemometer. VOC fluxes were measured by disjunct eddy covariance using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). At nighttime, a strong vertical gradient of phosphorus and potassium in the aerosol coarse mode was observed, with higher concentrations at Ground level. This suggests a source of primary biogenic particles below the canopy. Equivalent black carbon measurements indicate the presence of light-absorbing aerosols from biogenic origin. Aerosol number size distributions typically consisted of superimposed Aitken (76 nm) and accumulation modes (144 nm), without clear events of new particle formation. Isoprene and monoterpene fluxes reached respectively 7.4 and 0.82 mg m-2 s-1 around noon. An average fine particle flux of 0.05 ± 0.10 106 m-2 s-1 was calculated, denoting an equilibrium between emission and deposition fluxes of fine mode particles at daytime. No significant correlations were found between VOC and fine mode aerosol concentrations or fluxes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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