Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Overcoming Challenges in Engineering Large, Scaffold-Free Neocartilage with Functional Properties.

  • Author(s): Huang, Brian J
  • Brown, Wendy E
  • Keown, Thomas
  • Hu, Jerry C
  • Athanasiou, Kyriacos A
  • et al.
Abstract

Although numerous cartilage engineering methods have been described, few report generation of constructs greater than 4 cm2, which is the typical lesion size considered for cell-based therapies. Furthermore, current cell-based therapies only target focal lesions, while treatment of large nonisolated lesions remains an area of great demand. The objective of this study was to scale up fabrication of self-assembled neocartilage from standard sizes of 0.2 cm2 to greater than 8 cm2. Passaged sheep articular chondrocytes were self-assembled into 5 or 25-mm-diameter scaffoldless neocartilage constructs. The 25-mm-diameter constructs grew up to 9.3 cm2 (areal scale-up of 23) and possessed properties similar to those of the 5-mm-diameter constructs; unfortunately, these large constructs were deformed and are unusable as a potential implant. A novel neocartilage fabrication strategy-employing mechanical confinement, a minute deadweight, and chemical stimulation (cytochalasin D, TGF-β1, chondroitinase-ABC, and lysyl oxidase-like 2 protein)-was found to successfully generate large (25-mm diameter) constructs with flat, homogeneous morphologies. Chemical stimulation increased collagen content and tensile Young's modulus 140% and 240% in the 25-mm-diameter constructs and 30% and 70% in the 5-mm-diameter constructs, respectively. This study not only demonstrated that exceedingly large self-assembled neocartilage can be generated with the appropriate combination of mechanical and chemical stimuli but also that its properties were maintained or even enhanced.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC Academic Senate's Open Access Policy. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View