Studying Electoral Institutions and their Consequences: Electoral Systems and Electoral Laws
- Author(s): Bowler, Shaun;
- Carter, Elisabeth;
- Farrell, David M
- et al.
This paper examines whether participation in the electoral process has become easier or more difficult for new political parties. We identify barriers that might facilitate or discourage the participation of new parties in elections. This involves both the rules of ballot access, as well as media access and campaign funding. Then, we assemble empirical evidence on the changes in these barriers in advanced industrial democracies. The paper also considers whether any observed institutional changes have had demonstrable impact on the number of new and small parties in these electoral systems