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Impact of Achieved Blood Pressures on Mortality Risk and End-Stage Renal Disease Among a Large, Diverse Hypertension Population



Medical data or clinical guidelines have not adequately addressed the ideal blood pressure (BP) treatment targets for survival and renal outcome.


This study sought to evaluate ranges of treated BP in a large hypertension population and compare risk of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).


A retrospective cohort study within the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system was performed from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. Treated hypertensive subjects ≥ 18 years of age were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the risks (hazard ratios) for mortality and/or ESRD among different BP categories with and without stratification for diabetes mellitus and older age.


Among 398,419 treated hypertensive subjects (30% with diabetes mellitus), mortality occurred in 25,182 (6.3%) and ESRD in 4,957 (1.2%). Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for composite mortality/ESRD in systolic BP <110, 110 to 119, 120 to 129, 140 to 149, 150 to 159, 160 to 169, and ≥ 170 compared with 130 to 139 mm Hg were 4.1 (95% CI: 3.8 to 1.3), 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7 to 1.9), 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.1), 1.4 (95% CI: 1.4 to 1.5), 2.3 (95% CI: 2.2 to 2.5), 3.3 (95% CI: 3.0 to 3.6), and 4.9 (95% CI: 4.4 to 5.5) respectively. Diastolic BP 60 to 79 mm Hg were associated with the lowest risk. The nadir systolic and diastolic BP for the lowest risk was 137 and 71 mm Hg, respectively. Stratified analyses revealed that the diabetes mellitus population had a similar hazard ratio curve but a lower nadir at 131 and 69 mm Hg but age ≥ 70 had a higher nadir (140 and 70 mm Hg).


Both higher and lower treated BP compared with 130 to 139 mm Hg systolic and 60 to 79 mm Hg diastolic ranges had worsened outcomes. Our study adds to the growing uncertainty about BP treatment targets.

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