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Cutaneous Lymphadenoma Is a Distinct Trichoblastoma-like Lymphoepithelial Tumor With Diffuse Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity, Notch1 Ligand in Reed-Sternberg-like Cells, and Common EGFR Somatic Mutations.


The term "cutaneous lymphadenoma" was coined in this journal for an unusual lymphoepithelial cutaneous adnexal neoplasm, possibly with immature pilosebaceous differentiation. Some authors further proposed that cutaneous lymphadenoma was an adamantinoid trichoblastoma. However, although a hair follicle differentiation is widely accepted, the fact that this is a lymphoepithelial tumor is not appropriately explained by the trichoblastoma hypothesis. Our goal was to further clarify the phenotypic and genotypic features of cutaneous lymphadenoma in a series of 11 cases. Histologically, a lobular architecture surrounded by a dense fibrous stroma was present in all cases. The lobules were composed of epithelial cells admixtured with small lymphocytes and isolated or clustered large Reed-Sternberg-like (RS-L) cells. The epithelial cells were diffusely positive for the hair follicle stem cell markers CK15, PHLDA1, and for androgen receptor. No immunostaining for markers of sebaceous differentiation was found. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were predominantly CD3+, CD4+, FoxP3+ T cells. RS-L cells showed both strong Jagged-1 and Notch1 cytoplasmic immunostaining. Androgen-regulated NKX3.1 nuclear immunostaining was present in a subset of large intralobular cells in all cases. Double immunostaining showed coexpression of NKX3.1 and CD30 in a subset of RS-L cells. No immunostaining for lymphocytic or epithelial markers was present in RS-L cells. EGFR, PIK3CA, and FGFR3 somatic mutations were found by next-generation sequencing in 56% of the cases. We consider that cutaneous lymphadenoma is a distinct benign lymphoepithelial tumor with androgen receptor and hair follicle bulge stem cell marker expression, RS-L cell-derived Notch1 ligand, and common EGFR gene mutations.

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