Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for Truck Platooning: Operational Concept Alternatives
Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) provides an intermediate step toward a longer-term vision of trucks operating in closely-coupled automated platoons. There are important distinctions between CACC and automated truck platooning. First, with CACC, only truck speed control will be automated, using vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication to supplement forward sensors. The drivers will still be responsible for actively steering the vehicle, lane keeping, and monitoring roadway and traffic conditions. Second, while truck platooning systems have relied on a Constant Distance Gap (CDG) control strategy, CACC has relied on a Constant-Time Gap (CTG) control strategy, where the distance between vehicles is proportional to the speed. For these reasons, a series of trucks using CACC is referred to as a string, rather than a platoon. This report mainly focuses on describing the various CACC operational concept alternatives at the level of individual vehicles, local groups of vehicles and their drivers, and which alternatives should be employed in this research project. These operational concepts can be broken into four categories: string formation, steady-state cruising, string split maneuvers, and faults or abnormal operating conditions.