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Antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic effects show diurnal dependence and are reversible with time restricted feeding


Antipsychotic drugs (AP) are highly efficacious treatments for psychiatric disorders but are associated with significant metabolic side-effects. The circadian clock maintains metabolic homeostasis by sustaining daily rhythms in feeding, fasting and hormone regulation but how circadian rhythms interact with AP and its associated metabolic side-effects is not well-known. We hypothesized that time of AP dosing impacts the development of metabolic side-effects. Weight gain and metabolic side-effects were compared in C57Bl/6 mice and humans dosed with APs in either the morning or evening. In mice, AP dosing at the start of the light cycle/rest period (AM) resulted in significant increase in food intake and weight gain compared with equivalent dose before the onset of darkness/active period (PM). Time of AP dosing also impacted circadian gene expression, metabolic hormones and inflammatory pathways and their diurnal expression patterns. We also conducted a retrospective examination of weight and metabolic outcomes in patients who received risperidone (RIS) for the treatment of serious mental illness and observed a significant association between time of dosing and severity of RIS-induced metabolic side-effects. Time restricted feeding (TRF) has been shown in both mouse and some human studies to be an effective therapeutic intervention against obesity and metabolic disease. We demonstrate, for the first time, that TRF is an effective intervention to reduce AP-induced metabolic side effects in mice. These studies identify highly effective and translatable interventions with potential to mitigate AP-induced metabolic side effects.

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