Neonatal Diet Impacts the Large Intestine Luminal Metabolome at Weaning and Post-Weaning in Piglets Fed Formula or Human Milk
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.607609
The impact of human milk (HM) or dairy milk-based formula (MF) on the large intestine's metabolome was not investigated. Two-day old male piglets were randomly assigned to HM or MF diet (n = 26/group), from postnatal day (PND) 2 through 21 and weaned to a solid diet until PND 51. Piglets were euthanized at PND 21 and PND 51, luminal contents of the cecum, proximal (PC) and distal colons (DC), and rectum were collected and subjected to metabolomics analysis. Data analyses were performed using Metaboanalyst. In comparison to MF, the HM diet resulted in higher levels of fatty acids in the lumen of the cecum, PC, DC, and rectum at PND 21. Glutamic acid was greater in the lumen of cecum, PC, and DC relative to the MF group at PND 21. Also, spermidine was higher in the DC and rectal contents of HM relative to MF at PND 21. MF diet resulted in greater abundances of amino acids in the cecal lumen relative to HM diet at PND 21. Additionally, several sugar metabolites were higher in various regions of the distal gut of MF fed piglets relative to HM group at PND 21. In contrast, at PND 51, in various regions there were higher levels of erythritol, maltotriose, isomaltose in HM versus MF fed piglets. This suggests a post weaning shift in sugar metabolism that is impacted by neonatal diet. The data also suggest that infant diet type and host-microbiota interactions likely influence the lower gut metabolome.