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HALO7D II: The Halo Velocity Ellipsoid and Velocity Anisotropy with Distant Main-sequence Stars

  • Author(s): Cunningham, EC
  • Deason, AJ
  • Sanderson, RE
  • Sohn, ST
  • Anderson, J
  • Guhathakurta, P
  • Rockosi, CM
  • Van Der Marel, RP
  • Loebman, SR
  • Wetzel, A
  • et al.
Abstract

The Halo Assembly in Lambda Cold Dark Matter: Observations in 7 Dimensions (HALO7D) data set consists of Keck II/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope-measured proper motions of Milky Way halo main-sequence turnoff stars in the CANDELS fields. In this paper, the second in the HALO7D series, we present the proper motions for the HALO7D sample. We discuss our measurement methodology, which makes use of a Bayesian mixture modeling approach for creating the stationary reference frame of distant galaxies. Using the 3D kinematic HALO7D sample, we estimate the parameters of the halo velocity ellipsoid, , and the velocity anisotropy β. Using the full HALO7D sample, we find at kpc. We also estimate the ellipsoid parameters for our sample split into three apparent magnitude bins; the posterior medians for these estimates of β are consistent with one another. Finally, we estimate β in each of the individual HALO7D fields. We find that the velocity anisotropy β can vary from field-to field, which suggests that the halo is not phase-mixed at . We explore the β variation across the skies of two stellar halos from the Latte suite of FIRE-2 simulations, finding that both simulated galaxies show β variation over a range similar to that of the variation observed across the four HALO7D fields. The accretion histories of the two simulated galaxies result in different β variation patterns; spatially mapping β is thus a way forward in characterizing the accretion history of the Galaxy.

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