Flipped Instruction for Information Literacy: Five Instructional Cases of Academic Librarians
University of California, Berkeley librarians have incorporated the flipped instruction model into information literacy training by focusing on two primary elements: assigning pre-class assignments and increasing active learning techniques. We explore these two elements across five diverse instructional cases, which include one-shot and semester-long classes that were conducted through online or in-person delivery for both graduate and undergraduate students across a range of subject areas (sciences, social sciences, and humanities). We examine the enabling factors and the perceived outcomes of this instructional paradigm. Because students came to class with enhanced library understanding and experience from the pre-class assignment, they were better prepared to engage with the material and articulate additional learning needs. We note students' increased engagement during class and more time available for higher-order learning exercises and discussions. As a result, flipped instruction appears to enable more learning opportunities without increasing classroom time. The challenges of this model are the requisite commitment of time and effort, the need to foster class participation, and the facilitation of active communication within the class. We propose a framework of catalysts, building blocks, and instructional outcomes to help library instructors incorporate flipped instruction elements into their instructional design.