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The Origins of the Genomes of Triticum biunciale, T. ovatum, T. neglectum, T. columnare, and T. rectum (Poaceae) Based on Variation in Repeated Nucleotide Sequences

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The origins of the genomes of allotetraploid species Triticum biunciale, T. ovatum, T. neglectum, and T. columnare, and allohexaploid T. rectum were investigated by examining the presence of specific restriction fragments of repeated nucleotide sequencies in DNAs of the polyploid species. The restriction fragments were detectable either in a single diploid Triticum species (unique characters) or a group of diploid species (unique shared characters). The analysis showed that Triticum biunciale and T. ovatum are closely related. In both species, one pair of genomes is closely related to the genome of T. umbellulatum and the other is a modified genome of T. comosum. The same genome formula, UUM°M°, is proposed for T. biunciale and T. ovatum. Potential reasons for the modification of the M°genome are discussed. Triticum neglectum and T. columnare are also closely related to each other and have the same genomes. They share the U genome with T. biunciale and T. ovatum, but their second pair of genomes is unrelated to the M°genome. No relationship was found of this genome to a genome of any extant diploid species of Triticum or any phylogenetic lineage leading to the extant diploid species. This unknown genome is designated X1. The proposed genome formula for T. neglectum and T. columnare is UUX1X1. Hexaploid T. rectum originated from hybridization of one of the tetraploid species with the formula UUX1X1, likely T. neglectum, with T. umaristatum (genome N), and its genome formula is UUX1X1NN.

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