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Selective time-dependent changes in activity and cell-specific gene expression in human postmortem brain.

  • Author(s): Dachet, Fabien;
  • Brown, James B;
  • Valyi-Nagy, Tibor;
  • Narayan, Kunwar D;
  • Serafini, Anna;
  • Boley, Nathan;
  • Gingeras, Thomas R;
  • Celniker, Susan E;
  • Mohapatra, Gayatry;
  • Loeb, Jeffrey A
  • et al.
Abstract

As a means to understand human neuropsychiatric disorders from human brain samples, we compared the transcription patterns and histological features of postmortem brain to fresh human neocortex isolated immediately following surgical removal. Compared to a number of neuropsychiatric disease-associated postmortem transcriptomes, the fresh human brain transcriptome had an entirely unique transcriptional pattern. To understand this difference, we measured genome-wide transcription as a function of time after fresh tissue removal to mimic the postmortem interval. Within a few hours, a selective reduction in the number of neuronal activity-dependent transcripts occurred with relative preservation of housekeeping genes commonly used as a reference for RNA normalization. Gene clustering indicated a rapid reduction in neuronal gene expression with a reciprocal time-dependent increase in astroglial and microglial gene expression that continued to increase for at least 24 h after tissue resection. Predicted transcriptional changes were confirmed histologically on the same tissue demonstrating that while neurons were degenerating, glial cells underwent an outgrowth of their processes. The rapid loss of neuronal genes and reciprocal expression of glial genes highlights highly dynamic transcriptional and cellular changes that occur during the postmortem interval. Understanding these time-dependent changes in gene expression in post mortem brain samples is critical for the interpretation of research studies on human brain disorders.

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