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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Multiprincipal Component P2-Na0.6(Ti0.2Mn0.2Co0.2Ni0.2Ru0.2)O2 as a High-Rate Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.


Mixing transition metal cations in nearly equiatomic proportions in layered oxide cathode materials is a new strategy for improving the performances of Na-ion batteries. The mixing of cations not only offers entropic stabilization of the crystal structure but also benefits the diffusion of Na ions with tuned diffusion activation energy barriers. In light of this strategy, a high-rate Na0.6(Ti0.2Mn0.2Co0.2Ni0.2Ru0.2)O2 cathode was designed, synthesized, and investigated, combining graph-based deep learning calculations and complementary experimental characterizations. This new cathode material delivers high discharge capacities of 164 mA g-1 at 0.1 C and 68 mAh g-1 at a very high rate of 86 C, demonstrating an outstanding high rate capability. Ex situ and operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to reveal the detailed structural evolution of the cathode upon cycling. Using the climbing-image nudged elastic-band calculation and Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the optimal transition metal composition enables a percolating network of low barrier pathways for fast, macroscopic Na diffusion, resulting in the observed high rate performance.

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