Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Irvine

UC Irvine Previously Published Works bannerUC Irvine

Association of echocardiographic abnormalities with mortality in men with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease



The interrelationship of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with ejection fraction (EF) and their impact on mortality in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) is unclear.


We examined the associations of EF and LVH with all-cause mortality in a historic cohort of 650 male US veterans with moderate-to-advanced NDD-CKD. EF and LVH were examined both separately and after categorizing patients according to their concomitant EF and presence/absence of LVH. Associations with mortality were examined in Cox models with adjustments for demographics, blood pressure, comorbidities, smoking status, medication use and biochemical characteristics.


EF <30 and 30-50% were associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to EF >50% even after multivariable adjustments [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.83 (1.86-4.30) and 1.38 (1.06-1.78), P < 0.001 for linear trend]. LVH in itself was not associated with mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI: 0.83 (0.66-1.05), P = 0.12], but the presence of LVH combined with an EF <50% was associated with the highest mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratios, 95% CI in patients with EF >50% + LVH, EF ≤ 50%-LVH and EF ≤ 50% + LVH, compared to EF >50%-LVH: 0.84 (0.63-1.13), 1.36 (1.00-1.83) and 1.62 (1.07-2.46)].


Low EF is associated with higher mortality in patients with NDD-CKD. In the presence of a low EF, LVH is also associated with higher mortality. Clinical trials are needed to determine if interventions targeting patients with low EF and LVH can lower mortality in NDD-CKD.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View