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Antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Salmonella isolates from northern California dairy cattle admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital, 2002-2016.


Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections contribute to approximately 1.2 million annual illnesses in the United States. Historical and recent outbreaks have been associated with dairy products, ground beef, and direct contact with cattle. Salmonella antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious concern that can reduce successful treatment of infections, increasing recovery time, medical costs, and mortality rates in humans and animals. This highlights the need to track AMR in Salmonella isolated from cattle to improve treatment plans, manage trends in AMR, and prevent future AMR development. A total of 242 Salmonella isolates were retrieved from 9,162 cattle fecal samples submitted to the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 2002 to 2016. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using a standardized broth dilution panel. Multidrug resistance (MDR) to three or more classes of antimicrobials was observed in 50.8% of isolates, and the most common MDR pattern was amoxicillin-ampicillin-cefoxitin-ceftiofur-ceftriaxone-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-tetracycline (23.2%). There were significantly greater odds for antimicrobial resistance to aminoglycosides (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7), penicillins (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.007-3.5), and tetracyclines (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.017-3.4) for the 2002-2009 period when compared to the 2010-2016 period. The most prevalent MDR serotypes were Newport (100% MDR, n = 52), Typhimurium (100%, n = 20), and Dublin (71% MDR, n = 46). Risk factors associated with higher odds for isolating MDR Salmonella included isolates from calves when compared to adult cattle (OR: 22.0; 95% C.I.: 3.9-125.7), and isolates obtained from cattle suspect of having salmonellosis versus from the infectious disease control surveillance program (OR:13.7; 95%C.I.: 2.8-66.8). Despite a temporal trend for reduced AMR to most antimicrobial drug classes, a lack of this observed in the 2002-2009 period when compared to the 2010-2016 period for important drug classes such as cephalosporins (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.87-3.1), and a trend for temporal increase in resistant to quinolones drugs (P value 0.004) highlight the relevance of AMR surveillance in cattle with Salmonella infections with the aim of targeting future prophylactic interventions.

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