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Characterization of Dynamic UbR-Proteasome Subcomplexes by In vivo Cross-linking (X) Assisted Bimolecular Tandem Affinity Purification (XBAP) and Label-free Quantitation.


Proteasomes are protein degradation machines that exist in cells as heterogeneous and dynamic populations. A group of proteins function as ubiquitin receptors (UbRs) that can recognize and deliver ubiquitinated substrates to proteasome complexes for degradation. Defining composition of proteasome complexes engaged with UbRs is critical to understand proteasome function. However, because of the dynamic nature of UbR interactions with the proteasome, it remains technically challenging to capture and isolate UbR-proteasome subcomplexes using conventional purification strategies. As a result, distinguishing the molecular differences among these subcomplexes remains elusive. We have developed a novel affinity purification strategy, in vivo cross-linking (X) assisted bimolecular tandem affinity purification strategy (XBAP), to effectively isolate dynamic UbR-proteasome subcomplexes and define their subunit compositions using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. In this work, we have analyzed seven distinctive UbR-proteasome complexes and found that all of them contain the same type of the 26S holocomplex. However, selected UbRs interact with a group of proteasome interacting proteins that may link each UbR to specific cellular pathways. The compositional similarities and differences among the seven UbR-proteasome subcomplexes have provided new insights on functional entities of proteasomal degradation machineries. The strategy described here represents a general and useful proteomic tool for isolating and studying dynamic and heterogeneous protein subcomplexes in cells that have not been fully characterized.

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