Accurate Energy Attribution and Accounting for Multi-core Systems
This paper presents a novel energy attribution and accounting architecture for multi-core systems that can provide accurate, per-process energy information of individual hardware components. We introduce a hardwareassisted direct energy measurement system that integrates seamlessly with the host platform and provides detailed energy information of multiple hardware elements at millisecond-scale time resolution. We also introduce a performance counter based behavioral model that provides indirect information on the proportional energy consumption of concurrently executing processes in the system. We fuse the direct and indirect measurement information into a low-overhead kernel-based energy apportion and accounting software system that provides unprecedented visibility of per-process CPU and RAM energy consumption information on multi-core systems. Through experimentation we show that our energy apportioning system achieves an accuracy of at least 96% while impacting CPU performance by less than 0:6%.