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Associations of chronotype and sleep patterns with metabolic syndrome in the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos.

Abstract

Sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and sleep timing have been shown to have potential effects on metabolic functions relevant to circadian rhythms. It is not clear if the impact of sleep patterns on metabolic risk factors is through sociocultural and environmental factors or circadian misalignment. We investigated the associations of sleep patterns, chronotype, and social jet lag with metabolic syndrome among non-shift worker Hispanic/Latino adults. We used cross-sectional data from the Sueño Ancillary Study of The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Data from a subsample of 2189 participants aged 18-64 years were used in the analysis. Mean nightly sleep duration, mean sleep onset time, mean sleep offset time, mean sleep midpoint time, sleep efficiency, sleep variability (standard deviation (SD) of sleep duration, and SD of sleep midpoint), and time spent above light exposure threshold (1000 lux) in a day were assessed by wrist actigraphy (Acti-watch Spectrum). Chronotype was determined by the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Medical conditions including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were determined from a fasting blood specimen and physical exam at the baseline visit. To determine whether sleep patterns, light levels, chronotype, and social jetlag are associated with metabolic syndrome, multivariable logistic regression models were fitted, including variables with P < .15 in the univariate analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis demonstrated that in participants older than 40 years, intermediate chronotype (vs early) was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio (95%CI): 1.33 (1.04,1.7)), while later chronotype (vs. early) in participants younger than 40 years was significantly associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio (95%CI): 0.37 (0.14, 0.96)). Also, higher sleep efficiency was significantly associated with decreased odds of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio (95%CI): 0.98 (0.96, 0.99)). Nightly sleep duration was not significantly different between two groups of participants with and without metabolic syndrome in multivariable analyses. There was no significant association between social jet lag and metabolic syndrome in multivariable analysis (p = .286). Moreover, there was no significant association between chronotype and social jet lag in multivariable analysis. The association between metabolic syndrome and chronotype is age-dependent. While early chronotype is associated with metabolic syndrome in younger individuals, it tended to be associated with lower odds for metabolic syndrome in older individuals.

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