Dynamics of a spatially developing liquid jet with slower coaxial gas flow
A three-dimensional round liquid jet within a low-speed coaxial gas flow is numerically simulated and explained via vortex dynamics ($\lambda_2$ method). The instabilities on the liquid-gas interface reflect well the vortex interactions around the interface. Certain key features are identified for the first time. Two types of surface deformations are distinguished, which are separated by a large indentation on the jet stem: First, those near the jet start-up cap are encapsulated inside the recirculation zone behind the cap. These deformations are directly related to the dynamics of the growing cap and well explained by the vortices generated there. Second, deformations occurring farther upstream of the cap are mainly driven by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability at the interface. Three-dimensional deformations occur in the vortex structures first, and the initially axisymmetric KH vortices deform and lead to several liquid lobes, which stretch first as thinning sheets and then either continue stretching directly into elongated ligaments - at lower relative velocity - or perforate to create liquid bridges and holes - at higher relative velocity. The different scenarios depend on Weber and Reynolds numbers based on the relative gas-liquid velocity as was found in the temporal studies. The deformations in the upstream region are well portrayed in a frame moving with the convective velocity of the liquid jet. The usefulness of the temporal analyses are now established.