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Role of nutritional status and inflammation in higher survival of African American and Hispanic hemodialysis patients.

  • Author(s): Streja, Elani
  • Kovesdy, Csaba P
  • Molnar, Miklos Z
  • Norris, Keith C
  • Greenland, Sander
  • Nissenson, Allen R
  • Kopple, Joel D
  • Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
  • et al.
Abstract

Observational studies indicate greater survival in African American and Hispanic maintenance hemodialysis patients compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts, although African Americans have shorter life expectancy than whites in the general population. We hypothesized that this apparent survival advantage is due to a more favorable nutritional/inflammatory profile in minority hemodialysis patients.We examined the association between race/ethnicity and 5-year survival before and after adjustment for case-mix and surrogates of the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) using Cox regression with or without matched sampling in a large cohort of adult hemodialysis patients.124,029 adult hemodialysis patients, including 16% Hispanics, 49% non-Hispanic whites, and 35% African Americans.Race/ethnicity before and after adjustment for MICS, including values for body mass index, serum albumin, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, bicarbonate, white blood cell count, lymphocyte percentage, hemoglobin, and protein intake.5-year (July 2001 to June 2006) survival.In dialysis patients, blacks and Hispanics had lower mortality overall than non-Hispanic whites after traditional case-mix adjustment. However, after additional control for MICS, Hispanics had mortality similar to non-Hispanic whites, and African Americans had even higher mortality. Unadjusted, case-mix-, and MICS-adjusted HRs for African Americans versus whites were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.66-0.69), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86-0.91), and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.09) in the unmatched cohort and, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94), and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.26) in the matched cohort, and for Hispanics versus whites, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.64-0.69), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.87), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-1.00) in the unmatched cohort and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.95), and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.91-1.06) in the matched cohort, respectively.Adjustment cannot be made for unmeasured confounders.Survival advantages of African American and Hispanic hemodialysis patients may be related to differences in nutritional and inflammatory status. Further studies are required to explore these differences.

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