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State preparation and metrology of nitrogen nuclear spin in diamond

  • Author(s): Bang, Kilhyun
  • et al.
Abstract

A negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising system for quantum computation and quantum information. It has the diamond structure with a substitutional nitrogen atom and a neighboring vacancy. An electron spin in the NV center has an exceptionally long coherence time at room temperature. Thus the NV center has a potential to realize a room-temperature quantum computer which is more efficient than a classical computer. In this dissertation, we focus on the nitrogen nuclear spin as well as the electron spin in the NV center. Every NV center has the nitrogen nuclear spin. Because of the long coherence time of the nitrogen nuclear spin, it is a good candidate for a quantum memory. Thus it is important to prepare the nitrogen nuclear spin qubit in a given pure state for quantum computation. We provide a theoretical understanding of the popular nuclear spin initialization technique. Furthermore, we propose an optimal condition for the initialization of the nitrogen nuclear spin by including the local strain in the NV center. We expect that this optimal condition can improve the purity of the nuclear spin initialization. We also propose an efficient quantum measurement protocol for the hyperfine interaction between the electron spin and the ¹⁵N nuclear spin in the NV center. A precise knowledge of the hyperfine interaction is important to reduce an error in a coherent control of the ¹⁵N nuclear spin. In this protocol, a sequence of quantum operations with successively increasing duration is utilized to estimate the hyperfine interaction with successively higher precision approaching the quantum metrology limit. Unlike common quantum metrological methods, this protocol does not need the preparation of the nuclear spin in a pure state. In the presence of realistic operation errors and electron spin decoherence, we show the overall precision of our protocol still surpasses the standard quantum limit

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