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Conception rates in women desiring pregnancy after levonorgestrel 52 mg intrauterine system (Liletta®) discontinuation.

  • Author(s): Carr, Bruce R;
  • Thomas, Michael A;
  • Gangestad, Angelina;
  • Eisenberg, David L;
  • Olariu, Andrea;
  • Creinin, Mitchell D
  • et al.
Abstract

Objective

Evaluate reproductive function in nulligravid and gravid women after levonorgestrel 52 mg intrauterine system (IUS) discontinuation based on time to pregnancy.

Study design

We evaluated women participating in the ACCESS IUS multicenter, Phase 3, open-label clinical trial of the Liletta(®) levonorgestrel 52 mg IUS who discontinued the IUS within 60 months of use and desired pregnancy. Study staff contacted participants every three months after IUS discontinuation for up to 12 months to determine whether pregnancy occurred. We excluded women who opted to stop attempting to conceive before 12 months. We evaluated 12-month conception rates in participants 16-35 years at IUS placement, comparing dichotomous outcomes using Fisher's exact test. We performed a multivariable analysis to assess the association of baseline characteristics, age at discontinuation, duration of IUS use, and positive sexually transmitted infection testing during IUS use with conception.

Results

Among 165 women who attempted to conceive, 142 (86.1%) did so within 12 months with a median time to conception of 92 days. The 12-month conception rates did not differ between nulligravid (66/76 [86.8%]) and gravid (76/89 [85.4%]) women (p = 0.83) and nulliparous (78/90 [86.7%]) and parous (64/75 [85.3%]) women (p = 0.83). In multivariable analysis, only obesity (aOR 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.8]) was associated with ability to conceive.

Conclusions

After levonorgestrel 52 mg IUS discontinuation, women have rapid return of fertility in the year post-removal. Fertility rates after IUS removal do not vary based on gravidity, parity, age at discontinuation, or duration of IUS use.

Implications

This contemporary IUS study included a large population of nulligravid and nulliparous women. IUS use over many years does not effect spontaneous fertility after IUS discontinuation, regardless of gravidity or parity. Providers and patients should have no concern about the impact of IUS use on future fertility.

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