Secondary toxicity of coyotes killed by 1080 single-dose baits
Carcasses and viscera of coyotes poisoned by Compound 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) in single-dose tallow baits (SOBs) were fed to 3 coyotes, 3 domestic dogs, 4 striped skunks, and 15 black-billed magpies to determine if these species would be poisoned secondarily. Test subjects received no food other than tissues from poisoned coyotes for periods of 14 to 35 days. Total amounts of contaminated coyote tissues consumed by dogs, coyotes, skunks, and magpies, respectively, averaged 67, 152, 117, and 371% of body weight. Except for one skunk that refused to eat, no mortalities occurred, and no evidence of poisoning was seen. The average 1080 residue in tissues fed to nontarget animals from coyotes poisoned by one to three SDBs (5 to 15 mg 1080 per coyote) was 0.29, 0.30, and 0.31 ppm in muscle (n = 15 coyotes), small intestine (n = 13), and stomach tissue (n = 8), respectively. Highest residue levels observed were 0.66 ppm in muscle, 0.79 ppm in small intestine, and 0.76 ppm in stomach tissue. These concentrations were apparently too low to cause secondary poisoning in the species tested.