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L‐arginine as a potential GLP‐1‐mediated immunomodulator of Th17‐related cytokines in people with obesity and asthma

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Obesity is considered as a risk factor for COVID-19 with insulin resistance and increased production of inflammatory cytokines as likely mechanisms. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and inhaled nitric oxide are proposed therapeutic approaches to treat COVID-19 because of their broad anti-inflammatory effects. One approach that might augment GLP-1 levels would be dietary supplementation with L-arginine. Beyond cytokines, multiple studies have started to investigate the relationship between new-onset diabetes and COVID-19. In a posthoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled human clinical trial of L-arginine supplementation in people with asthma and predominantly with obesity, the results showed that 12 weeks of continuous L-arginine supplementation significantly decreased the level of IL-21 (p = 0.02) and increased the level of insulin (p = 0.02). A high arginine level and arginine/ADMA ratio were significantly associated with lower CCL-20 and TNF-α levels. The study also showed that L-arginine supplementation reduces cytokine levels and improves insulin deficiency or resistance, both are two big risk factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Given its safety profile and ease of accessibility, L-arginine is an attractive potential therapeutic option that allows for a cost-effective way to improve outcomes in patients. An expedition of further investigation or clinical trials to test these hypotheses is needed.

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