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Proteolipid protein-deficient myelin promotes axonal mitochondrial dysfunction via altered metabolic coupling.

Abstract

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a neurological syndrome characterized by degeneration of central nervous system (CNS) axons. Mutated HSP proteins include myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and axon-enriched proteins involved in mitochondrial function, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) structure, and microtubule (MT) stability/function. We characterized axonal mitochondria, SER, and MTs in rodent optic nerves where PLP is replaced by the peripheral nerve myelin protein, P0 (P0-CNS mice). Mitochondrial pathology and degeneration were prominent in juxtaparanodal axoplasm at 1 mo of age. In wild-type (WT) optic nerve axons, 25% of mitochondria-SER associations occurred on extensions of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mitochondria-SER associations were reduced by 86% in 1-mo-old P0-CNS juxtaparanodal axoplasm. 1-mo-old P0-CNS optic nerves were more sensitive to oxygen-glucose deprivation and contained less adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than WT nerves. MT pathology and paranodal axonal ovoids were prominent at 6 mo. These data support juxtaparanodal mitochondrial degeneration, reduced mitochondria-SER associations, and reduced ATP production as causes of axonal ovoid formation and axonal degeneration.

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