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Open Access Publications from the University of California

A Head-and-Torso Model for Low-Frequency Binaural Elevation Effects

  • Author(s): Avendano, Carlos;
  • Algazi, Ralph;
  • Duda, Richard O
  • et al.

Low-frequency elevation-dependent features appear in HRTF measurements because of torso and shoulder reflections and head diffraction effects. A simple structural model that accounts for these features is presented. Listening tests show that the model produces significant elevation cues for virtual sound sources whose spectra are limited to frequencies below 3 KHz. The low-frequency binaural elevation cues are perceptually significant away form the madian plane, and complement high-freequency monaural pinna cues.

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